Ernest Rutherford’s discovery of the nature of the atom in 1911 came at the mid-point (1896-1926) in a revolution of ideas about the nature of matter that has led to a fundamental change on many aspects of life. In this course, the development of these ideas will be traced with special emphasis on the construction of nuclear fission and fusion devices [Atomic and Hydrogen Bombs]. The successful development of nuclear power from fission and the disappointment in deriving power from fusion will be studied, along with discussions of risks associated with these devices.